Blood is normally contained within the circulatory system: the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins. When these are torn or damaged, bleeding occurs. This can be on the outside of the body through a visible wound or on the inside of the body (internal bleeding).Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the heart along the arteries to the tissues and through the tissues in the capillaries where the oxygen is made available for use. Veins carry the deoxygenated blood back to the heart. 

Types of bleeding

Bites and Stings

Many bites and stings are minor and, although irritating, respond well to simple first aid. Bites from humans and animals may be more serious. Because their mouths harbour many germs that can cause infection,these wounds always require medical attention. Snake bites pose a problems due to the venom that may be injected. 

Insect stings


Asthma is a condition that makes breathing out difficult. It affects the air passages in the lungs and can be trigged by a variety of causes including allergy, stress or smoke.

However, there is not obvious cause to the asthma attack.Attacks are sudden and can be alarming, both to the casualty and onlookers. Many asthmatic carry medication which they take during an asthma attack. Usually, this is taken as an inhaler. 



Allergies are adverse reactions by the body to substances which comes in contact. These substances may be touched, swallowed, inhaled or injected. The allergy may exhibit itself in a number of way in some cases there may be more than one allergic response 


There is little a first aider can do to alleviate an allergic reaction beyond providing simple relief. 

Abdominal pain

A relatively common complaint, Abdominal pain can be less serious if due to indigestion, wind, etc., but may be serious when caused, for example, by a perforation in part of the bowel or by appendicitis. As it is a area first aid for which it is very difficult to give precise Guidelines, common sense has to be used.

Slim & Trim

Avoid a tight squeeze

Never buy anything too tight-forget about slimming into a skirt or dress you fall in love with in the shop. Tight clothes show off the kilos mercilessly, while loose fitting but narrow clothes flatter your figure. 

Movement is everything

Every kind of sport stimulates the metabolism. Make sure you choose a form of exercise that really suits you-alone or with friends, indoors or out-only then will you stick with it. 

Avoid pleats and turn-ups

Fitness Level

Individuals at Fitness Level 1 have not regularly participated in an exercise program and should begin slowly. The following is only a guideline, you should consult a physician prior to beginning any new exercise program!. Most experts in the field recommend beginning with 3 times per week, 20-30 minutes per session. If you cannot work for 20 minutes to begin with that's OK, just keep at it until you reach the 20 minute mark. (In order for your heart to benefit, you should try to exercise aerobically for a minimum of 20 minutes.)

For Losing Weight

If you are mainly interested in weight loss, you must begin some type of aerobic exercise program. Aerobic exercise can include Aerobic classes, Jogging, Swimming, Bicycling, Fast walking Etc. With aerobic exercise, the goal is to get your heart rate into the target zone (50-85% of your maximum) and sustain that pace for an extended period of time. The length of the exercise and the intensity level you choose depend upon your ....


Using the same large muscle group, rhythmically, for a period of 15 to 20 minutes or longer while maintaining 60-80% of your maximum heart rate. Think of aerobic activity as being long in duration yet low in intensity. Aerobic activities include: walking, biking, jogging, swimming, aerobic classes and cross-country skiing. Anaerobic activity is short in duration and high in intensity. Anaerobic activities include: racquetball, downhill skiing, ....