NAUSEA & VOMITING

Published by administrator on Sun, 12/11/2011 - 23:52
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Alternative names:
emesis; stomach upset; upset stomach; vomiting

Definition:
Nausea is the sensation leading to the urge to vomit. To vomit is to force the contents of the stomach up through the esophagus and out of the mouth.

Considerations:
Dehydration is the biggest concern in most vomiting episodes. The rate with which dehydration takes place depends on the size of the person, the frequency of the vomiting, and whether or not there is also diarrhea.

Infants with frequent vomiting and diarrhea are at the greatest risk for dehydration and need immediate medical attention.

Signs of dehydration are increased thirst, infrequent urination or dark yellow urine, dry mouth, eyes that appear sunken, and skin that has lost its normal elasticity.

Common causes:

  • medications
  • viral infections
  • seasickness or motion sickness
  • migraine headaches
  • morning sickness during pregnancy
  • food poisoning
  • food allergies
  • chemotherapy in cancer patients
  • bulimia
  • alcoholism

Possible causes of vomiting in infants (0 to 6 months):

  • congenital pyloric stenosis, a constriction in the outlet from the stomach (With this disorder, the infant--usually male, less than 4 months old--vomits forcefully after each feeding but otherwise appears to be healthy.)
  • disturbed equilibrium from bouncing the baby immediately after feeding
  • food allergies or milk intolerance
  • gastroenteritis(infection of the digestive tract that usually causes vomiting with diarrhea)
  • gastroesophageal reflux
  • hole in bottle nipple may be wrong size
  • infection, often accompanied by a fever or runny nose
  • intestinal obstruction, evidenced by recurring attacks of vomiting, and crying or screaming as if in great pain
  • accidental ingestion of a drug or poison--Call the doctor IMMEDIATELY or take the child to an emergency care facility!

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