Child development refers to the biological, psychological, and emotional changes that occur in humans between the time of birth and the end of puberty. Three stages of Childhood: early childhood, middle childhood, and late childhood ( preadolescence). Early childhood is the period between infancy and the age of six. Development is important during this period since numerous life milestones occur during this time period, such as first words, crawling, and walking. Middle childhood, or the ages 6–13, is the most critical years of a child’s existence. Adolescence is a stage of life that normally begins around the age of 15 and lasts until legal adulthood.
Individual humans grow from reliance to increased autonomy as they develop. It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, but usually each child takes a very different path. It does not develop at the same rate, and each stage is influenced by previous developmental events. Because genetic factors and events during prenatal life can have a strong influence on developmental changes, genetics and prenatal development are usually studied alongside child development. Related concepts include developmental psychology, which refers to development across the lifespan, and paediatrics. It is the discipline of medicine concerned with the care of children.
Developmental change can occur as a consequence of genetically controlled processes known as maturation or as a result of environmental influences and learning, although it is most usually the result of a combination of the two. It may also occur as a result of human nature and the ability to learn from one’s surroundings.
Periods in a child’s development are defined differently since each period is a continuum with unique differences in starting and ending points.
Newborn (ages 0–4 weeks); infant (children 4 weeks – 1 year); toddler (ages 12 months – 36 months); preschooler (ages 3–5 years); school-aged child (ages 6–13 years); adolescent (ages 14–19).
Among other things, encouraging child development through parental instruction produces outstanding rates of child development. Parents have a significant influence on their children’s activities, socialising, and development. Having several parents can provide consistency in a child’s life and hence promote healthy growth. The quality of children’s care is another important component in their growth. Child-care programmes may be advantageous to the development of children’s learning ability and social skills.
The social, cognitive, emotional, and intellectual development of children is critical to society, and it is critical to understand their growth. Increased study and interest in this sector has resulted in new theories and tactics, particularly in terms of school-based practise that supports growth. Other theories aim to define the progression of states that make up a child’s mental and physical development.