Coronary artery disease (CAD)

Coronary artery disease (CAD), often known as coronary heart disease (CHD) or simply heart disease, is a disorder in which blood flow to the heart muscle is diminished as a result of plaque buildup (atherosclerosis) in the arteries of the heart. It’s the most frequent type of heart disease. Angina can be classified as stable, unstable, myocardial infarction, or abrupt cardiac death. A common symptom is chest pain or discomfort, which can move to the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. At times, it may feel like heartburn. Exertion or mental stress usually triggers symptoms, which last for a few minutes before improving with rest. There is also the chance of shortness of breath, and there are times when no symptoms are present.

The initial indication is typically a heart attack. Another concern is heart failure or an irregular heartbeat.

Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, depression, and excessive alcohol usage. Some of the tests that can aid in diagnosis include an electrocardiogram, heart stress testing, coronary computed tomographic angiography, and coronary angiogram.

You can reduce your risk of coronary artery disease by eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy weight, and not smoking. Medications for diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure are sometimes used. There is minimal evidence that screening patients who are at low risk and have no symptoms is beneficial. Treatment comprises the same steps as prevention in terms of prevention.

Antiplatelets, such as aspirin, beta blockers, and nitroglycerin, among other medications, may be administered. Procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be used in cases of severe disease. In those with stable CAD, it’s unclear if PCI or CABG, in addition to other treatments, enhances life expectancy or reduces the chance of heart attack.

CAD affected 110 million individuals in 2015, resulting in 8.9 million fatalities. It is the top cause of death in the world, accounting for 15.6 percent of all deaths. Between 1980 and 2010, the risk of dying from coronary artery disease decreased with age, particularly in developed countries. The number of CAD cases per person of a specific age decreased between 1990 and 2010.

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