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Human biology

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Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic area that studies humans through the influences and interconnections of many different fields, such as genetics, evolution, physiology, anatomy, epidemiology, anthropology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics, and social factors. It is strongly related to biomedical sciences, biological anthropology, and other biological studies that tie together many aspects of human functionality. It wasn’t until the twentieth century that biogerontologist Raymond Pearl, founder of the journal Human Biology, used the word “human biology” in a way that distinguished it from biology.

It’s also a portmanteau word for all biological characteristics of the human body, usually employing the human body as a type organism for Mammalia, and it’s the foundation for many undergraduate University degrees and modules in that context.

Human biology
Human biology

The majority of human biology is identical to or extremely similar to that of mammals in general. Humans, in particular, and as examples:

Keep their body temperature constant

Have an internal skeleton, circulatory system, and neurological system to supply sensory input, as well as control and coordinate muscular action

They have a reproductive system that allows them to produce milk and bear live pups.

Have an endocrine system in which hormones and other biochemical signalling signals are produced and eliminated

Have a respiratory system in which oxygen is used to make energy once air is breathed into the lungs.

Having a healthy immune system that protects you from sickness

Waste is excreted in the form of urine and faeces.

Typical human characteristics

Human biology’s most important features are the ways in which humans vary from other mammals.

Humans have a huge brain housed in a cranium that is disproportionately large for their size. This enormous brain has enabled a variety of unique characteristics, including as the creation of sophisticated languages and the ability to create and use a diverse set of tools.

Although the upright stance and bipedal locomotion are not unique to humans, they are the only creatures that rely on this style of locomotion almost completely. Significant changes in the structure of the skeleton, including the articulation of the pelvis and femur, as well as the articulation of the head, have resulted as a result of this.

Humans live for an extremely long time in comparison to most other mammals, with an average age at death in the industrialised world of approximately 80 years. Humans also have the longest childhood of any mammal, taking an average of 12 to 16 years to reach sexual maturity.

Humans do not have fur. Humans are practically naked in terms of insulation from cold, notwithstanding a residual coating of fine hair, which may be more developed in some men, and localised hair covering on the head, axillary, and pubic regions. The explanation for this shift is still up for dispute.

Although the human eye can sense colour, it is not well adapted to low light situations. Although the senses of smell and taste are present, they are inferior to those of a wide spectrum of other mammals. Human hearing is good, although not as good as that of other mammals. Similarly, the human sense of touch is substantially developed, particularly in the hands where dextrous tasks are performed, but it is still significantly less sensitive than in other species, particularly those equipped with sensory bristles such as cats.

Extensive scientific research

As a scientific subject, human biology seeks to comprehend and promote study on humans as living organisms. It use a variety of scientific approaches, such as experiments and observations, to detail the biochemical and biophysical underpinnings of human life, as well as to define and formulate the underlying processes through the use of models. As a fundamental science, it serves as the fou Medicine

The human brain’s capabilities and dexterity in making and using tools have enabled humans to understand their own biology through scientific experimentation, including dissection, autopsy, and prophylactic medicine, allowing humans to live longer through better understanding and reducing the impact of diseases.

Understanding human biology has permitted and facilitated a broader understanding of mammalian biology, and thus the biology of all living organisms.


Human nutrition is similar to animal omnivorous nutrition in that it requires a balanced intake of carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. The human diet, on the other hand, has a few extremely unique requirements. ndation for medical knowledge. Anatomy, cytology, histology, and morphology are some of the sub-disciplines. These contain two specific amino acids, alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, both of which are required for long-term survival. All other fatty acids can be produced from dietary fats. Similarly, human life necessitates the presence of a variety of vitamins in diet; if these are absent or supplied at unacceptable quantities, metabolic problems develop, which can lead to death. Except for the necessity to consume Vitamin C to prevent scurvy and other deficiency disorders, the human metabolism is comparable to that of most other mammals. A person can produce Vitamin D3 using natural UV light from the sun on the skin, which is unusual among mammals.

Although this capacity is prevalent in the mammalian world, only a few other species have almost exposed skin like humans. The darker a person’s skin, the less capable it is of producing Vitamin D3. so Medicine is the study and practise of health and healing. It consists of nurses, doctors, and other specialists. It covers disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, as well as medical research and a variety of other health topics. Medicine aims to improve and maintain one’s health and well-being.

Other living things

Human biology includes all creatures that dwell on or in the human body. These organisms vary from parasitic insects like fleas and ticks to parasitic helminths like liver flukes and bacterial and viral diseases. The specialised biome in the large intestine and the biotic flora of the epidermis, pharynx, and nasal region are home to many species linked with human biology. Many of these biotic communities protect humans from damage and aid in digestion, and they are now known to have complicated effects on mood and well-being.

Social interaction

Humans in all civilizations are social animals who communicate through language and tool manufacturing.

These communication abilities allow civilizations to develop and allow for the creation of art, literature, and music, as well as the advancement of technology. All of these are entirely dependent on human biological specialisations. The application of these abilities has allowed humans to dominate the terrestrial environment, to the disadvantage of most other species.

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