The inability to conceive is referred to as infertility. After 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse, the inability to become pregnant is the accurate definition.

There are two types of infertility: Male infertility and Female infertility.

Primary infertility refers to a couple’s inability to have any children at all.

Couples who have already conceived and given birth to a child but are having problems expanding their family are likely to experience secondary infertility.


What is the definition of infertility?

Subfertility is a word used by some doctors to describe any sort of diminished fertility that lasts a long time. It’s vital to understand that infertility can be caused by female, male, or a mix of both causes. Both male and female fertility are affected by a variety of circumstances. The successful merging of a female egg and male sperm to generate the new entity that is the baby is referred to as fertilisation.

Hormones, oogenesis, implantation, and the possibility of pregnancy are all factors that affect female fertility.

Hormones, spermatogenesis, erection maintenance, and ejaculation are all male factors that affect fertility.

A complete medical and family history, occupational and lifestyle history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and study of genetic factors that may affect one or more of these aspects are all steps in an infertile couple’s workup.

In a normal fertile couple, what are the chances of conceiving?

In one month of unprotected sex, a normal fertile couple has a 20% chance of attaining pregnancy, and this grows to roughly 90% in about 12 months of unprotected sex. As a result, a fertile couple can expect to become pregnant within the first year of trying.

What are some of the reasons for infertility or subfertility?

Male factors are considered to account for 30% of causes, female factors for 30%, a mix of both male and female factors for 30%, and the remaining 10% is idiopathic or of unknown origin.

The brain, as well as two critical regions of the brain, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, play a vital role in female fertility. The vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary are all part of the female reproductive tract. The hypothalamus produces a hormone called gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) that stimulates the pituitary gland in the brain to create two key hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicle stimulating hormone is a hormone that stimulates the development of follicles within the ovary. There are many follicles poised to mature in females of reproductive age, but only a few of them develop each cycle.

The follicles begin to produce oestrogen as they mature.

The hormone oestrogen plays a vital role in the menstrual cycle. Estrogen, in high doses, actually aids the pituitary gland’s production of luteinizing hormone. Luteinising hormone causes ovulation by targeting the most developed follicle in the ovary. The female egg is released into the fallopian tube when the follicle ovulates. The female egg is now ready for the male sperm to fertilise it. After then, the post-ovulatory follicle gradually degenerates into the corpus luteum. Progesterone, another crucial hormone that prepares the body for possible pregnancy, is released as the corpus luteum degenerates. As a result, progesterone is recognised as a pregnancy hormone.

If the female egg does not fertilise, the cycle begins again after the female administers.

The follicular phase, during which the follicle grows, and the luteal phase, during which the corpus luteum degenerates, are the two phases of the female menstrual cycle.

Infertility can be caused by female factors that affect any section of these phases or any organ involved in these phases.

Infertility can be classified into five major categories:

Pituitary diseases are the first.

The hypothalamus in the first case is unable to effectively create gonadotropin releasing hormone. As a result, there isn’t enough gonadotropin releasing hormone to promote the pituitary gland’s synthesis of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. When follicle stimulating hormone is absent, the ovaries’ follicles do not grow. There will be no ovulation if the luteinizing hormone is absent. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, commonly known as type one ovulation condition, is one example of this. Hypothalamic pituitary insufficiency is a common cause.

Overactivity of the hypothalamus pituitary axis is another example of a pituitary dysfunction.

The brain generates gonadotropin releasing hormone, which stimulates follicle stimulating hormone and then luteinizing hormone, which is produced by the pituitary gland. However, the ovary does not have many follicles, thus adequate follicle growth is not possible. Because there isn’t enough oestrogen being made, no ovulation will occur. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, commonly known as ovulation disorder type three, is the name given to this condition. In this scenario, ovarian failure is an example.

Another hormone called prolactin causes the third form of pituitary problem.

Prolactin, a crucial hormone for nursing, is likewise produced by the pituitary gland. However, prolactin production can increase for a variety of reasons, which is known as excessive prolactinemia. When prolactin levels are high in the blood, the hypothalamus receives a negative feedback signal, limiting the generation of gonadotropin releasing hormone. Low gonadotropin releasing hormone indicates that follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are not being produced adequately, resulting in infertility.

Pituitary tumours, which generally produce more prolactin, are one of the actual causes of hyperprolactinemia.

A hormone produced by the brain called prolactin inhibitory factor reduces prolactin production and secretion. However, if anything interferes with PIF, more prolactin can be produced, and certain drugs can block the development of prolactin inhibitory factor. Tumours can also interfere with the function of the prolactin inhibitory factor, resulting in hyperprolactinemia. Finally, hypothyroidism can cause hyperprolactinemia by stimulating prolactin production.

Infertility can also be caused by a variety of illnesses.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome, or PCOS for short, is one example of this. The most prevalent cause of ovarian malfunction in women of reproductive age is polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multiple cysts cover the ovary surface in polycystic ovaries, which are expanded to a smooth but thicker than normal outer coating. Ovulation disorder type two is also known as polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hyperandrogenism is one of the key symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Any cause of hyperandrogenism in which there are excess androgens in the blood might affect female menstruation and, as a result, ovulation. Remember that the female menstrual cycle is separated into two phases: follicular and luteal.

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