Health & Fitness

Cellular factors in Innate Immunity

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens, and is mediated by a variety of cellular and molecular mechanisms. These mechanisms are activated rapidly after exposure to pathogens and are non-specific, meaning that they do not target specific pathogens, but rather provide a broad-spectrum defense against a wide range of potential invaders.

Innate Immunity

One important aspect of innate immunity is the role of cellular factors, which play a key role in recognizing and responding to pathogens. These cellular factors can be broadly grouped into three categories: pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), cytosolic sensors, and inflammatory cells.

 

Pattern Recognition Receptors

PRRs are a diverse group of receptors that are found on the surface of cells or within the cytosol. They are able to detect conserved molecular patterns that are common to a wide range of pathogens, known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PAMPs are typically molecules that are not found in host cells, such as bacterial cell wall components or viral nucleic acids.

Pattern Recognition Receptors

Examples of PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are found on the surface of cells and recognize PAMPs such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and viral nucleic acids. Another example is the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, which are cytosolic sensors that recognize PAMPs such as bacterial peptidoglycan and viral dsRNA.

Pattern Recognition Receptors 2

When PRRs detect PAMPs, they activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the activation of phagocytic cells, and the upregulation of antimicrobial proteins. These responses help to eliminate the invading pathogen and promote inflammation and healing.

 

Cytosolic Sensors

In addition to PRRs, there are also cytosolic sensors that play a critical role in innate immunity. These sensors are able to detect pathogens that have managed to enter host cells, as well as abnormal host cell components that may be indicative of cellular stress or injury.

 

One important example of a cytosolic sensor is the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family. RLRs recognize viral RNA and activate signaling pathways that lead to the production of interferons (IFNs), which are a family of antiviral cytokines that can inhibit viral replication. Another example is the inflammasome, a multiprotein complex that can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including viral and bacterial components as well as host cell damage. Activation of the inflammasome leads to the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and pyroptosis, a programmed form of cell death that can help to control viral infections.

 

Inflammatory cells

Inflammatory Cells

Finally, inflammatory cells play a crucial role in innate immunity by quickly responding to the presence of pathogens and eliminating them. These cells include neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, which are able to phagocytose (engulf and digest) invading pathogens. They also produce and release a variety of antimicrobial molecules, such as reactive oxygen species and proteases, that can help to kill invading microbes. Additionally, inflammatory cells can act as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune response by presenting antigen to T cells and secreting cytokines that can promote the differentiation of T cells into various subsets such as T helper 1 and T helper 17.

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