A non-communicable disease (NCD) is an illness that can’t be communicated from one person to the next. Among these are Parkinson’s disease, autoimmune disorders, strokes, the majority of cardiac illnesses, the majority of cancers, diabetes, chronic renal disease, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s disease, cataracts, and other NCDs. NCDs can be either chronic or acute. The majority of non-communicable infectious diseases are non-infectious, with the exception of parasitic disorders where the parasite’s life cycle does not require direct host-to-host transmission.
NCDs are the leading cause of death worldwide. In 2012, they were responsible for 68 percent of all deaths (38 million), up from 60% in 2000. Half of the participants were men and the other half were women under the age of 70. Certain risk factors, such as a person’s upbringing, lifestyle, and environment, make certain NCDs more likely.
At least 5 million people die each year as a result of cigarette smoking, with another 2.8 million dying as a result of obesity. High cholesterol kills 2.6 million people, but high blood pressure kills 7.5 million.
Risk factors such as a person’s upbringing, lifestyle, and environment are known to make some non-communicable diseases more likely. Age, gender, genetics, air pollution exposure, and behaviours such as smoking, poor eating habits, and physical inactivity can all contribute to hypertension and obesity, which raises the risk of multiple NCDs. Because the majority of NCDs are caused by modifiable risk factors, they are seen as preventable.
The WHO’s World Health Report 2002 identified five significant risk factors for noncommunicable illness as among the top ten health problems. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and obesity are all examples of risk factors. Other social determinants of health, such as a person’s economic and social conditions, have been related to an increased risk of NCDs.
It is estimated that removing the primary risk factors might prevent 80 percent of cases of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes, as well as 40 percent of cancers. Interventions that address the key risk factors may have a significant impact on reducing the global burden of disease.
NCD prevalence has been shown to be controlled by initiatives centred on a healthier diet and more physical exercise.