Haemophilus influenzae B conjugate vaccine; Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine or shot; vaccine - Hib
There are at least three types of licensed Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines. All are considered effective; however, not all types are approved for use in infants. The primary type used in the immunization of infants is the Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, given by injection. This vaccine first became available in 1988 and has been recommended for children since 1990.
Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine is one of the recommended childhood immunizations. Some states require proof of receiving the vaccine prior to entry into day care or preschools.
- Infants and toddlers should receive injections of the vaccine at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and 15 months of age.
- Children 15 months to 5 years, who have not received the vaccine, should be given a single injection of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine.
- Children over 5 years of age and adults do not need to receive immunization for Haemophilus influenza type b.
Over 90% of infants receiving 3 doses of the Hib vaccine gain long-term protection against the illnesses caused by Haemophilus b bacteria. These illnesses include about 12,000 cases of meningitis each year, 5% of which prove fatal and about 25% of which may result in permanent brain damage. Haemophilus b may also cause serious infections such as pneumonia, pericarditis, and infections of the blood, bones, and joints. Serious Haemophilus b infections are most common in children 6 to 12 months old, but 30% occur in children 18 months or older. An additional 1 out of 200 children will experience a moderate to severe form of Haemophilus b infection prior to their 5th birthday.
It is currently not known if the vaccine provides any protection against ear infections caused by Haemophilus b. It does not protect against diseases caused by other forms of Haemophilus.
Most infants who receive the Hib vaccine will have no associated problems. Others may have minor problems, such as redness or tenderness at the injection site. Serious problems associated with receiving the immunization are rare.
Delay or Do not give (CONTRAINDICATIONS)
- If the child is ill, with something more serious than a cold, immunizations should be delayed.
- If severe allergic reaction or anaphylaxis occurs after an injection of the Hib vaccine, no further Haemophilus b immunization should be given to the child.
- There are no specific contraindications to the Hib vaccine for infants or young children.
Post Immunization Symptoms and Care
Watch for and be familiar with how to treat minor side effects such as injection site tenderness or low-grade fever.
Call the Primary Health Care Provider if
- Uncertain if the Haemophilus b vaccine should be delayed, withheld, or given to a specific infant.
- Moderate or serious adverse effects appear after the Hib injection has been given.
- There are any questions or concerns related to the Haemophilus b immunizatio