Lassa fever is the most common fever which is zoonotic or animal-borne, also an acute viral illness. The infection was acute as which makes the complication to the person, as the animal vector for Lassa virus, the “multimammate rat” is distributed throughout the region. The Lasa fever was first existed or discovered in the year 1970 and its first case occurred in Nigeria and the name originated from there.
The study and the report were proved it was known 100,000 to 300,000 cases of viral infections of Lassa fever which is occurring annually, which also lead to a death rate of approximately 5,000 people. There are major risks for the condition where surveillance for Lassa fever is not standardized; therefore, these estimates are crude. The treatment was not properly certified whereas the advanced treatment is proceeded functionally to reduce or stop the symptoms at least of this viral infection.
Signs and Symptoms
Majorly the symptoms of Lassa fever viral infection at the first occurs at around 1-3 weeks once the patient comes into direct contact with the virus. The condition where some people face many mild symptoms of Lassa fever virus infections (approximately 60%), in which the Lassa fever symptoms are mild and which are undiagnosed as well. However, the mild symptoms of fever include slight fever, weakness, fatigue, general malaise, and headache.
The Lasa fever patients were given the drug named Ribavirin, an antiviral drug, to eliminate the disease with success. As it was been taken in the earlier period of the viral infection which is effective for getting treated earlier. Also, the affected patients must also receive supportive care which is important by consisting of maintenance of appropriate fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, also where the treatment of any other complicating infections.
Risk of Exposure
Most of the people who have the greatest risk the factor of getting infected with Lassa virus infection majorly are those who live in or visit the endemic countries or the regions like Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria and the individual who is affected or who are exposed to the multimammate rat. Hospital staff are not at great risk for getting infected with the disease for a longer period as protective and proper measures and sterilization methods are used before treating patients.
Most of the primary transmission of the viral infection of the Lassa virus from its host to humans can be prevented by only the method of making distance or avoiding contact with Mastomys rodents. Putting food away in rodent-proof containers and keeping the home clean help to discourage rodents from entering homes. Using these rodents as a food source is not recommended. Trapping in and around homes can help reduce rodent populations; however, the wide distribution of Mastomys in Africa makes complete control of this rodent reservoir impractical.
Also, when caring for patients who are infected with Lassa fever, further transmission of the disease through person-to-person contacts or nosocomial routes should be tried to avoid by taking methods to get preventive precautions against the certain contact with patient secretions also called VHF isolation precautions or barrier nursing methods).