Any disorder that hinders the body’s natural functioning is referred to as a disease. As a result, diseases are linked to the body’s regular homeostatic processes malfunctioning.
Infectious diseases, which are clinically obvious disorders caused by pathogenic microbiological agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoa, multicellular organisms, and abnormal proteins such as prions, are commonly referred to by the name.
A disease is not defined as an infection or colonisation that does not and will not cause clinically noticeable impairment of normal function, such as the presence of normal bacteria and yeasts in the gut or a passenger virus. A disease, on the other hand, is commonly defined as an infection that is asymptomatic throughout its incubation period but is predicted to generate symptoms later. All other diseases, including most types of cancer, heart disease, and genetic disease, are classified as non-infectious disorders.
An acquired disease is one that started during one’s lifetime, as opposed to a congenital condition, which is one that was present at birth. Although acquired sounds like it could indicate “contagious,” it just means “acquired after birth.”
It also sounds like secondary disease, yet acquired disease might potentially be main disease.
Acute disease is a disease that lasts for a brief period of time (acute); the phrase can also refer to an illness that is fulminant.
Ailment or sickness that lasts a long time
A chronic ailment is one that lasts for a long time, usually at least six months, but it can also include illnesses that last for the whole of one’s natural life.
Congenital disorder or congenital disease is a term used to describe a condition that is present at birth.
A congenital disorder is one that is present from the moment you are born. It is frequently a genetic disease or disorder that can be passed down down the generations. It could also be the result of a vertically transmitted infection, such as HIV/AIDS, from the mother.
One or more genetic mutations produce a genetic condition or disease. Although it is frequently inherited, certain mutations occur at random and without warning.
Inherited or hereditary sickness
A hereditary sickness is a form of genetic disorder caused by hereditary genetic mutations (and can run in families)
Iatrogenic illness is a term that refers to a condition that is caused by medical intervention, whether as a side effect of a treatment or as an unintended consequence.
The cause or source of an idiopathic ailment is unknown. Many diseases with completely unknown aetiology have had some aspects of their causes revealed and so lost their idiopathic designation as medical research has progressed.
When germs were first found, it was clear that they were a source of illness, but specific germs and diseases had yet to be identified. Another example is that autoimmunity is known to cause various types of diabetes mellitus type 1, despite the fact that the specific biochemical pathways through which it works are unknown. It’s also common knowledge that certain circumstances are linked to particular diseases; nevertheless, association and causality are two very different things, as a third cause, as well as an associated occurrence, could be causing the sickness.
A sickness that is incurable. Incurable diseases are not always fatal, and the symptoms of a disease can occasionally be managed to the point that the sickness has little or no affect on quality of life.
A primary disease is one that develops as a result of a root cause of illness, as opposed to a secondary disease, which develops as a result of the original disease. A common cold, for example, is a primary condition, with rhinitis as a probable consequence or sequela. When determining whether or not to prescribe antibiotics, a doctor must identify what main condition, such as a cold or bacterial infection, is causing a patient’s secondary rhinitis.
A secondary disease is one that develops as a result of or as a consequence of a primary disease, often known as the primary disease or simply the underlying cause (root cause). A bacterial infection, for example, can be primary, in which a healthy individual is exposed to bacteria and becomes infected, or secondary to a primary cause, in which the body is predisposed to infection. A primary viral infection, for example, could impair the immune system and lead to a secondary bacterial infection. A primary burn that leaves an open wound, on the other hand, could allow bacteria to enter and cause a secondary bacterial infection.
The word “terminal disease” refers to a condition that is likely to lead to death. AIDS was once thought to be a fatal disease; however, it is now incurable and can be controlled indefinitely with drugs.
Illness and sickness are both commonly used as synonyms for disease; nevertheless, the term illness is sometimes used to refer to a patient’s personal experience with his or her affliction. In this model, a person can have a disease without being ill (have an objectively definable but asymptomatic medical condition, such as a subclinical infection, or have a clinically apparent physical impairment but not feel sick or distressed by it), and can be ill without being diseased (for example, when a person misinterprets a normal experience as a medical condition).
Symptoms of disease are frequently a collection of developed responses – sickness behaviour by the body – that help remove infection and promote recovery, rather than a direct outcome of infection. Lethargy, depression, loss of appetite, tiredness, hyperalgesia, and inability to concentrate are all symptoms of sickness.
A functional abnormality or disruption is referred to as a disorder. Mental illnesses, physical disorders, genetic diseases, emotional and behavioural disorders, and functional disorders are the different types of medical disorders. In some situations, the term disorder is preferable language because it is more value-neutral and less stigmatising than the phrases disease or illness. The phrase “mental disorder” is used in mental health to describe the complex interaction of biological, social, and psychological elements that occur in psychiatric illnesses.
The term disorder, on the other hand, is used in many other fields of medicine, primarily to define physical problems that are not caused by infectious organisms, such as metabolic disorders.
Medical problem or Health problem
A medical condition, often known as a health condition, is a broad term that refers to any disease, lesion, disorder, or nonpathologic state that requires medical attention, such as pregnancy or childbirth. While the word “medical condition” is often used to refer to any illness, injury, or disease that is not a mental illness, it is also used in other contexts to refer to any illness, injury, or disease that is not a mental illness.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Document of Mental Disorders (DSM), a widely used psychiatric manual that identifies all mental disorders, refers to all diseases, illnesses, and injuries except mental disorders as a general medical condition. In the psychiatric literature, this usage is also widespread. Except for psychiatric conditions, some health insurance policies define a medical condition as any ailment, injury, or disease.
People with health difficulties that they do not consider harmful prefer the phrase medical condition since it is more value-neutral than terms like disease. On the other hand, because it emphasises the medical character of the illness, some people, such as supporters of the autism rights movement, dislike it.
Medical condition is sometimes a synonym for medical status, which describes a patient’s current medical condition. This phrase can be found, for example, in remarks describing a patient’s serious condition.
Morbidity (from the Latin morbidus, which means “sick, ill”) is a diseased state, disability, or poor health caused by any number of factors. The phrase can relate to the presence of any type of disease or the severity with which the patient’s health condition affects them. ICU scoring systems are frequently used to assess the level of morbidity in critically sick patients. The presence of two or more medical diseases, such as schizophrenia and substance abuse, is referred to as comorbidity.
The phrase “morbidity rate” can refer to either the incidence rate or the prevalence of a disease or medical condition in epidemiology and actuarial science. The mortality rate of a condition, which is the proportion of people who die during a certain time span, stands in contrast to this measure of illness. In actuarial professions like health insurance, life insurance, and long-term care insurance, morbidity rates are used to establish the correct premiums to charge consumers. Morbidity rates assist insurers in predicting the chance of an insured contracting or developing any of a range of diseases.
Pathology or pathosis
Disease is referred to as pathosis (plural pathoses). Pathology also has this meaning, which is often used by clinicians in medical literature, however some editors prefer to keep pathology for its other meanings. Pathology or pathosis, suggesting “some pathophysiologic process,” rather than disease, implying “a specific disease entity as determined by diagnostic criteria previously met,” is sometimes used due to a minor connotative tint. This is difficult to define in terms of denotation, but it explains why cognitive synonymy is not constant.
A syndrome is defined as a grouping of signs and symptoms or other features that frequently occur together, regardless of the cause. Down syndrome, for example, is known to have only one aetiology (an extra chromosome at birth).
Others, such as Parkinson’s disease, are recognised to have a variety of causes. Acute coronary syndrome, for example, is not a single disease in and of itself, but rather the symptom of a number of disorders, including myocardial infarction caused by coronary artery disease. However, the cause of several disorders remains unknown. Even when an underlying reason has been identified or when there are several plausible primary causes, a well-known syndrome name is frequently used. Turner syndrome and DiGeorge syndrome, for example, are still referred to as “syndromes” despite the fact that they might be understood as disease entities rather than just a collection of signs and symptoms.
A subclinical or prodromal forerunner of a disease is called a predisease. Prehypertension and prediabetes are two frequent examples. However, the nosology or epistemology of predisease is debatable because there is rarely a clear line between justifiable concern for subclinical/prodromal/premonitory condition (on the one hand) and conflict of interest–driven disease mongering or medicalization (on the other) (on the other hand).
Identifying a legitimate predisease can lead to useful preventive measures, such as encouraging a healthy amount of physical activity, but labelling a healthy person with an unfounded notion of predisease can lead to overtreatment, such as taking drugs that only help people with severe disease or paying for drug prescriptions with a minuscule benefit–cost ratio (placing it in CMS’ “waste, fraud, and abuse” classification). There are three conditions that must be met in order for a condition to be classified as a predisease:
a truly high risk of disease progression – for example, a pre-cancer will almost certainly turn into cancer over time actionability for risk reduction – for example, removing precancerous tissue prevents it from turning into a potentially deadly cancer benefit that outweighs the harm of any interventions – removing precancerous tissue prevents cancer, and thus prevents a potential death from cancer.