Culture is a broad phrase that incorporates human societies’ social behaviour, institutions, and norms, as well as the individuals’ knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, conventions, abilities, and habits. Culture is frequently traced back to a particular region or location.

The diversity of cultures across societies demonstrates that humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialisation.


A cultural norm is a guideline for behaviour, attire, language, and manner in a setting, and it acts as a template for social expectations. Accepting a monoculture in a social group carries hazards, much as a single species can wither in the face of environmental change due to a lack of functional responses. As a result, in military culture, bravery is regarded as a typical individual action, while duty, honour, and social group loyalty are regarded as virtues or useful responses to conflict. Analogous characteristics in a social group can be observed in the practise of religion.

Cultural repositioning, often known as cultural transformation, is the reconstruction of a society’s cultural concept. Internal influences both fostering and resisting change have an impact on cultures. Cultures are influenced from the outside via interactions between societies.

UNESCO, for example, works to conserve culture and cultural assets.

In anthropology, culture is a key term that encompasses a wide range of phenomena that are passed down through social learning in human communities. All human societies share cultural universals. These include art, music, dancing, ritual, and religion, as well as technologies such as tool use, cooking, shelter, and clothing. Material culture refers to the physical manifestations of culture, such as technology, architecture, and art, whereas intangible cultural heritage refers to the immaterial aspects of culture, such as social organisation principles (including political organisation and social institutions), mythology, philosophy, literature (both written and oral), and science.

One definition of culture in the humanities is the degree to which an individual has nurtured a specific level of sophistication in the arts, sciences, education, or etiquette. Culture sophistication has also been used to separate civilizations from less sophisticated societies in the past. Class-based divisions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by stratified access to cultural capital, are also seen in such hierarchical perspectives on culture. In everyday speech, culture refers to the symbolic markers that ethnic groups employ to separate themselves visibly from one another, such as body modification, clothes, and jewellery.

The mass-produced and mass-mediated forms of consumer culture that arose in the twentieth century are referred to as mass culture. Culture is frequently utilised politically as a tool of the elites to influence the proletariat and produce a false consciousness, according to some philosophical schools, such as Marxism and critical theory. In the field of cultural studies, such viewpoints are frequent. The theoretical approach of cultural materialism in the social sciences asserts that human symbolic culture emerges from the material conditions of human life, as humans construct the conditions for physical survival, and that culture’s foundation is found in developed biological tendencies.

A “culture” is the set of practises, traditions, and values of a civilization or community, such as an ethnic group or nation, when used as a count noun. Culture is a body of information that has been accumulated over time. In this way, multiculturalism promotes peaceful coexistence and mutual respect among people of many cultures who share the same planet. Specific practises within a subgroup of a community, a subculture (e.g. “bro culture”), or a counterculture are sometimes referred to as “culture.” Cultural relativism is an ideology and analytical attitude in cultural anthropology that holds that civilizations cannot easily be objectively rated or evaluated since any evaluation must be located inside a given culture’s value system.

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